1. Hosea's marriage to the harlot symbolized the spiritual adultery of the people turning away from God to serve other gods.
  2. He symbolized the promise to Jehu that his sons would sit on the throne of Israel to the fourth generation. After this Israel would be taken captive (2Ki. 10:30-31).
  3. She symbolized God's position against Israel - no mercy.
  4. He symbolized that God would separate Himself from Israel.


  1. They still observed the feast days, the new moon celebrations, the Sabbaths, and other appointed feasts.


  1. She represented the period of time Israel would be without a king or priest. They would be in captivity by Assyria.


  1. Swearing, lying, killing, stealing, adultery, and bloodshed were rampant in the land.
  2. Knowledge of God and righteousness was not given to the people.
  3. They will be trampled because of their sin and come to ruin.
  4. The men were causing the daughters to sin.


  1. Our deeds should be directed toward God and for God. Their deeds would not allow them to turn toward God.
  2. They were prideful in their strength and wealth but had forsaken God. They symbolized the pride which God hated. They sought Assyria’s help and turned to Baal.
  3. Ephraim must acknowledge their sins and then seek God.


  1. This may reference the coming of the Holy Spirit and Jesus to establish the new covenant.  Literally it refers to God’s anger with them is short-lived but His mercy will come.
  2. Their faith lasted only as long as a morning cloud or the dew on the ground.
  3. God desires their mercy to others and to possess knowledge of Him.


1.      Ephraim turned to Egypt and Assyria instead of God.


  1. As a cluster of grapes found in the wilderness and like the first fruits on the fig tree, Israel was pleasing in His eyes.
  2. They became an abomination to Him.
  3. They would have no one to protect them from any evil because God would turn his face away from them. God would cause them to dwindle. There would be no births, pregnancies, or conception. If the children did survive they would be killed later.


  1. The people and the priests of Samaria had created the image of the calf to worship. It would be taken away from them during their captivity.


  1. They did not fear or love Him as the mighty powerful and only God who held their lives in His hands. They observed rituals but were full of sinful deeds and idol worship. They constantly backslid and only called on God when they needed Him.


  1. God will judge them by all their deeds and ways done up to that point.
  2. Life is a struggle to do right before man and God (as Jacob did), but we will find God when we search for Him. We are to be merciful and just to all and wait on God's help continually.


  1. This is a hint of Jesus who is to come and be the ransom for all people.
  2. Their prosperity and their idolatry would end when captivity from the East came upon them.


  1. Their prayers of repentance for sins and praise for God's forgiveness and salvation.
  2. God would forgive them, heal them, and turn His anger away from doing them harm.
  3. By obeying God they would be blessed and prospererous. They would have the favor of God.
  4. By not following God's ways,  they will remain in sin, conflict, and the wrath of God